From Ebbs and Flows by Joseph P Joyce:
When the full history of the European debt crisis is related, one important part of the story will be the uneasy relationship of the International Monetary Fund with its European partners in the “Troika,” the European Commission and the European Central Bank. The Fund and the Europeans came to hold different views on the nature of the crisis and how it should be handled soon after its outbreak in 2010. Their disagreements reflect the split in the Fund’s membership between creditors and debtors, and the inherent ambiguity of the position of an intergovernmental organization that serves principals with different interests.
Greece obtained $145 billion from the Troika in May 2010. Of that amount, $40 billion was provided by the IMF in the form of a three-year Stand-by Arrangement. This represented 3,200% of the Greek quota at the IMF, far above the usual access limits. Susan Schadler has drawn attention to the modification of IMF policy that was made in order to allow the agreement to go forward.
The IMF has criteria to be met in deciding whether to allow a member “exceptional access” to its resources. One of these of these is a high probability that the borrowing member’s public debt will be sustainable in the medium-term. At the time of the arrangement, the IMF’s economists realized that there was little probability that Greek sovereign debt would be sustainable within any reasonable timeframe. The IMF, therefore, amended the criteria so that exceptional access could also be provided if there were a “high risk of international systemic spillover effects.” There was little doubt that such effects would occur in the event of a default, but whether this justified lending such large amounts was questionable.
It soon became clear that the two of the other four criteria would not be met. Greece would not regain access to private capital markets while it participated in the Fund program (criterion #3). Moreover, there was little prospect of a successful implementation of the policies contained in the original agreement (criterion #4). By 2011, it was evident that the program with Greece was not viable. Talks began on a new program and a restructuring of the debt, which eventually occurred in 2012. Moreover, Ireland received assistance from the Troika in December 2010, as did Portugal in February 2011.